Teaching with the Library of Congress

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September in History with the Library of Congress

Tue, 08/26/2014 - 9:00am

This post comes courtesy of Uhuru Flemming of the Library of Congress.

Many teachers like to include mini-lessons or bell-ringers about “this day in history.” The Library of Congress offers two resources that recount what happened on a particular day using the Library’s collections of digitized primary sources: Jump Back in Time (introductory) and Today in History (advanced). Choose the one that best matches your students’ reading levels to build both content knowledge and research skills with primary sources in context.

Miraflores Locks, east chamber, Panama Canal

September highlights include the signing of the Panama Canal Treaty and Neutrality Treaty (introductory; advanced) and America’s first celebrated Labor Day (introductory; advanced), as well as milestones related to:

Military History

  • September 12, 1918: American forces under General Pershing launched their first offensive in World War II (introductory; advanced),
  • September 22, 1776: Patriot Nathan Hale was hanged for spying on British troops (introductory; advanced);

The Arts

Phillis Wheatley by Scipio Moorhead, 1773

Social Reformers

  • September 6, 1860: Social reformer and pacifist Jane Addams was born (introductory; advanced),
  • September 18, 1895: Booker T. Washington delivered the speech that came to be known as the Atlanta Compromise  (introductory; advanced).

To engage your students immediately, distribute or display one primary source from an entry and invite them to jot down a single detail they notice and then share. To draw your students deeper into analyzing the primary sources, ask them to record observations, reflections and questions on the Library’s primary source analysis tool. Anne Savage offers tips in the Blog Round-Up: Using the Primary Source Analysis Tool.

Students can also:

  • Compare a secondary source account, such as a textbook explanation, to a primary source account. What can be learned from each? What cannot be learned from each? What questions do students have?
  • Consider how a series of primary sources support or challenge information and understanding on a particular topic. Ask students to refine or revise conclusions based on their study of each subsequent primary source.
  • Use the list of additional resources at the end of each Today in History entry to search for additional primary sources.

Some of our favorite ideas for using these resources came in the comments reacting to Primary Sources Every Day from the Library of Congress. Let us know how you use them!

 

Reintroducing the Library of Congress to Teachers

Thu, 08/21/2014 - 9:00am

Teachers study historic maps in a Library of Congress Summer Teacher Institute

As teachers and librarians return to their schools and prepare for a new year, we’d like to take the opportunity to reintroduce ourselves, and to remind you of all that the Library offers to teachers.

loc.gov: The primary sources teachers need, all for free. The Library of Congress is not only a great library–it’s also one of the world’s richest destinations for educators seeking primary sources. The Library’s online collections contain more than 30 million digitized historical artifacts and documents, spanning centuries of human history and crossing all disciplines. They’re all available to everyone for free, with no subscription and no login, at loc.gov.

loc.gov/teachers: Teacher tools and professional development supporting the use of primary sources. Primary sources have a unique educational power. When used effectively, they can engage students, build their critical thinking skills, and support them as they construct new knowledge. The Library’s Web site for teachers offers ready-made lesson plans, primary source sets, and primary source analysis tools, as well as online professional development and information on our summer teacher programs.

The Teaching with the Library of Congress blog: Every week, our blog highlights powerful primary sources from the Library’s collections and showcases new tools and teaching strategies. Search our archive for a trove of posts exploring different aspects of teaching with primary sources, from selection to observation and analysis.

@TeachingLC: The Library’s Twitter feed for educators brings you timely primary sources and teaching ideas, as well as the latest news about our programs and activities. Follow us and tweet at us–we love to hear about ways we can help.

This school year is going to be an exciting one for the Library, as we expand our science offerings, launch Civil War and Civil Rights resources, add new functionality to our online collections, and branch out into new forms of online professional development. Watch our social media channels for the latest, and we look forward to hearing from you.

 

 

 

 

More than Just an Intern: 5 Questions with Camille Tolliver

Tue, 08/19/2014 - 9:00am

This is a guest post by Camille Tolliver. Camille worked with the education team at the Library of Congress as part of the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) Internship Program.

1. What is your background?

I was born and raised in Los Angeles, California. This past May 2014, I graduated from Johns Hopkins University with my M.A. in Communication with an emphasis on Digital Communication.

2. How did you learn about the intern program and why did you want to work at the Library of Congress?

Camille, ready to welcome teachers to a summer institute

I found out about the Library of Congress intern program through the HACU National Internship Program. I wanted to intern with the Library of Congress because it was something that was different for me and I wanted to challenge myself. I didn’t know what to expect, but it definitely turned out to be a great experience.

3. How would you describe your internship?

Most interns take on an internship not knowing what to expect. At the Library, I am more than “just” an intern. I am currently interning in the Educational Outreach department where my opinions and my work are valued. My colleagues are very influential to me because they’re very knowledgeable and always helping me enhance my skills. I enjoy interning in the Educational Outreach department because they do not hesitate to challenge me and help me learn and grow professionally.

Being able to help with the Summer Teacher Institutes from start to finish was a great experience for me. Every week was very interesting. It was great to see how amazed the participants were when they were handed a primary source to analyze. I learned a lot from sitting and watching teachers put on their thinking caps and become students.

The impact that I noticed primary sources have on teachers is that it opens their mind to a new way of learning, teaching and getting their students involved. Oh how I wish my teachers used primary sources when I was in elementary, middle and high school!

4. What has amazed you the most about the Library?

I am most amazed by how passionate everyone is about what they do and how they are always willing to tell you about their department. There’s always an opportunity to learn something new.

5. What advice can you give future interns?

EXPLORE! Take advantage of the opportunities and resources within the Library. The Library has a lot of amazing collections and hosts a lot of amazing events. Lastly, remember, you are more than “just” an intern.

Our Favorite Posts: Kate DiCamillo: Stories Connect Us

Thu, 08/14/2014 - 9:00am

Summer is a perfect time to reflect on the school year gone by. This week, Danna Bell of the Library of Congress showcases one of her favorite posts from 2013-2014.

As my colleagues know, for the past year I have served as the president of the Society of American Archivists. At the organization’s upcoming conference one of my duties will be to give a plenary address that highlights a theme that is of importance to me and that connects to issues of importance to archivists. For my presidential address, I’ve decided to focus on the importance of knowing and sharing your story.

Since the beginning of my term, I have talked about the importance of story in our lives and of sharing your story–be it with family or friends or with those who can help protect and preserve archival collections. The primary sources found in archives provide a new avenue to share a story; a way that can engage and inspire. Kate DiCamillo, the current Library of Congress National Ambassador for Young People’s Literature, chose the theme “Stories Connect Us” for her inaugural address and it resonated with me. So did Rebecca Newland’s post on using DiCamillo’s stories and primary sources to help draw students deeper into the story.

Kate DiCamillo: Stories Connect Us January 14, 2014 by

This post is by Rebecca Newland, the Library of Congress 2013-14 Teacher in Residence.

The organ grinder, No. 1, 1901.

On Friday, January 10, 2013 the Library of Congress inaugurated Kate DiCamillo as the 2014-15 National Ambassador for Young People’s Literature.  The role of the Ambassador is to raise “national awareness of the importance of young people’s literature as it relates to lifelong literacy, education and the development and betterment of the lives of young people.”  DiCamillo, the fourth to hold this position, has chosen “Stories Connect Us” as her theme, saying “When we read together, we connect. Together, we see the world. Together, we see each other.”

This is a great time to feature DiCamillo’s work in classrooms and libraries. Pair the books with primary sources to help students connect to the world in the books. Display items near her work in the school or classroom library. Encourage discussions of the ways in which the primary sources might enhance or contrast with the characters or scenes that appear in the books.

To accompany the picture book Great Joy, compare the illustrations of the organ grinder with  one or more of these photographs. If you are musical or can team with your school’s music teacher, consider a singalong with the musical score of “The Organ Grinder” and discuss the view of the life of an organ grinder as presented in the song.

If your students are a bit older and reading the Bink and Gollie series, take a look at this drawing or this photograph of the Andes Mountains while reading Bink and Gollie to give students a sense of place when the girls make their trek.

Swing ride at the 2012 California State Fair. Carol Highsmith, 2012

In Bink and Gollie: Two for One, the girls visit the state fair and see a fortune teller. These recent photographs bring a state fair into your classroom, illustrating the excitement of carnival rides and fair food for children who may never have had the opportunity to attend. Ask students who have visited a state fair to share their experiences with the class. This picture of a Louisiana State Fair fortune teller and this one of a fortune teller’s booth offer an old-fashioned view of this profession.

Lillian Russell, 1861-1922, three-quarters length, seated, facing right; with cards at table, in the “Tzigane,” 1895.

The Magician’s Elephant also involves a fortune teller, who may or may not resemble this fanciful portrayal by Lillian Russell. Ask students to draw their own version of a fortune teller based on the novel’s description or their own imaginings.

In The Miraculous Journey of Edward Tulane, Edward rides with transient men on the railroad. Young children may have no concept of hopping a rail car, or even of regular train travel, and photographs may help them visualize what these experiences might look like.  This photograph shows both a man and a train to illustrate life on the trains, while this one shows two hobos who have been put off a train.

Try these ideas to take a closer look and draw students in deeper:

  • As a class or in groups, look for details in the photos that correspond to the descriptive details in the book. Ask students to compare details in the text and illustrations to the details in the primary source photographs. How does viewing the photograph versus the illustration affect your understanding?
  • Interested students may investigate topics they discover in the books, such as places visited, organ grinders, fortune tellers, or hobos and other transient populations.
  • Use these or other images or maps as prompts for students to write their own stories.

What are your students’ favorite scenes from Kate DiCamillo’s stories? Let us know in the comments!

Welcome Back!

Tue, 08/12/2014 - 9:00am

Teachers examine a photograph from the Library’s collections

As the nation’s educators prepare for–or begin–the new school year, we welcome you to another year of the Teaching with the Library of Congress blog!

This blog supports teachers and school librarians as they teach with primary sources, particularly those from the rich online collections of the Library. Our posts cover a wide range of disciplines, spotlighting powerful items from the collections as well as sharing teaching strategies from our staff and many partners. Whether you’re focused on science, history, literature, civics, informational text, the Common Core State Standards, or inquiry, you’ll find helpful ideas and engaging conversation here.

Search our past posts to find topics of interest, or start with these popular posts:

Watch this space for our fall season of posts, and follow @TeachingLC on Twitter for up-to-the-minute teaching ideas and more primary sources.

In the meantime, let us know what you’d like to see covered in this blog!

 

 

 

Our Favorite Posts: Celebrating Edweard Muybridge

Tue, 08/05/2014 - 9:00am

Summer is a perfect time to reflect on the school year gone by. This week, Anne Savage of the Library of Congress showcases one of her favorite posts from 2013-2014.

I was fascinated with flip books as a child. It took a good bit of practice to flip the pages smoothly enough to “see” the motion, but when I did, it was a magical experience. Years later, a teacher asked us to create our own flip book, and suddenly I became aware of the flip side of flip books – the strangely-posed “in-between” images.

I love this blog post about Muybridge’s stop-action photography because it’s about technology, art, science….and the magic of in-between images.  As the author writes: What can your students learn from the images that is not observable from the live action?

Celebrating Edweard Muybridge: Documenting Movement and Creating Art April 17, 2014 by

Stop-action photography has become an integral part of our lives. It allows us to watch the beauty of a dancer, the grace of an athlete or the motion of an animal one frame at a time. It is hard to believe that until Edweard Muybridge began his study of animal locomotion with photography in the late 19th century, we were limited to only what the eye could see or what was in a single photograph. In celebration of Muybridge’s birthday, the Library of Congress has uploaded a number of Muybridge’s Animal Locomotion images from its collections into Flickr.

The horse in motion, illus. by Muybridge. “Sallie Gardner,” owned by Leland Stanford, running at a 1:40 gait over the Palo Alto track, 19 June 1878: 2 frames showing diagram of foot movements

Animal Locomotion, Edweard Muybridge, 1887

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Colleagues in both the Prints and Photographs Division and the Science Division found plenty to write about this set, underscoring how it straddles science, technology, and art. In “Eadweard Muybridge: Birth of a Photographic Pioneer” Kristi Finefield noted how the camera recorded and revealed new insights about motion. “What the human eye could not capture at the time, Muybridge’s series of cameras, often operating on timers, could. And so, viewers of the late 19th century were able to see in a sequence of photos every step taken by a horse at full gallop, the sleek movements of a cat running and each flap of the wings of a bird in flight.” In “Animal Locomotion: From Antiquity to the 21st Century,” Jennifer Harbster traces the history of the study of animal locomotion. She suggests that “By studying nature and observing animal movement scientists can better understand biomechanics, physiology, evolution, physics, and engineering.” And so, we might add, can students!

The zoopraxiscope – a couple waltzing. Edweard Muybridge, 1893.

Students can examine Muybridge’s work, including a few examples of zoopraxiscopes which helped to bring movement to still images. How can students use Muybridge’s photographs as part of science and artistic activities? Here are a few suggestions:

  • Ask students to select one sequence of “Animal locomotion” images, perhaps a horse or a cat running, and compare the sequence to the experience watching the action. What can be learned from the images that is not observable from the live action?
  • Direct students to one of Muybridge’s images of  birds in motion. How might a sequence of a bird in flight have shaped the experiments of early aviators?

Five Questions with Educational Consultant Mary Johnson

Tue, 07/29/2014 - 9:00am

Mary Johnson

What do you teach, and where?

Even after thirty-three years as a teacher and librarian in Iowa, Germany, and Colorado, I must confess that I failed retirement! Through my work with the Teaching with Primary Sources Western Region program and the TPS Teachers Network, I have remained deeply involved in professional development. I also “teach” through Twitter and my Primary Source Librarian blog, seizing every opportunity to share Library of Congress primary sources and teaching ideas. Because so much of my work is online, my computer and I have become inseparable, but I still relish the occasional face-to-face teaching gig.

How do you use Library of Congress materials with your students or colleagues?

Lately I have been championing Library of Congress materials as a vehicle for helping students develop the skills to ask their own questions. I have long believed that student questioning is essential to creating lifelong learners. Transferring the power of the question to students requires a conscious change in school cultures – a real shift in practice – and one that primary sources support quite effectively.

Tell us about an item from the Library’s online collections that you love to show to students.

Like many teachers and students, I gravitate toward visual primary sources, but recently I’ve made an effort to identify short, teachable texts for a variety of reading levels. One of my all time favorite texts is a model 1857 “Dear John” letter from a dance manual with the impossibly long title of The lady’s guide to perfect gentility, in manners, dress, and conversation … also a useful instructor in letter writing, toilet preparations, fancy needlework, millinery, dressmaking, care of wardrobe, the hair, teeth, hands, lips, complexion, etc. I am also anxious to explore the new Clara Barton papers, particularly her diaries and journals from the American Civil War.

Describe an “Aha!” moment for you with teaching with primary sources.

I’ve had so many “Aha!” experiences over the years! In addition to countless student light bulb moments, I would say a slightly different “Aha!” moment came with the realization that the Library’s education staff is always ready and excited to help teachers and librarians everywhere. Not only can educators take advantage of TPS regional and partner workshops across the country, but they can also apply for the Library’s prestigious Summer Teacher Institute, access professional development modules online, follow the Teaching with the Library of Congress blog, subscribe to the @TeachingLC Twitter feed, use the Ask a Librarian service, and the list goes on! You are never alone when you discover the power of primary sources.

What would you most like to tell other your fellow educators about teaching with primary sources like these?

I would advise them to make primary sources a daily habit, both as learners and as teachers. Take that first step, and connect with others so you can learn together.

August in History with the Library of Congress

Tue, 07/22/2014 - 9:00am

This post comes courtesy of Uhuru Flemming of the Library of Congress.

Many teachers like to include mini-lessons or bell-ringers about “this day in history.” The Library of Congress offers two resources that recount what happened on a particular day using the Library’s collections of digitized primary sources: Jump Back in Time (introductory) and Today in History (advanced). Choose the one that best matches your students’ reading levels to build both content knowledge and research skills with primary sources in context.

August highlights include the American Broadcasting Company’s airing of Saturday morning television shows for children (introductory; advanced) and the Panic of 1857 (introductory; advanced), as well as milestones related to:

The War of Wealth, 1895

Military History

Sports

  • August 6, 1890:  Baseball great Cy Young pitched his first professional game (introductory; advanced);

Father Reading Newspaper, two children viewing television. Gottscho-Schleisner, Inc. 7/12/1952

Women’s History Firsts

  • August 5, 1858:  Julia Archibald Holmes became the first woman to reach Pike’s Peak (introductory; advanced),
  • August 15, 1860:  Florence Kling Harding, the first American woman allowed to vote for her husband for president, was born (introductory; advanced);

Exploration

  • August 18, 1774:  Explorer Meriwether Lewis was born near Charlottesville, VA (introductory; advanced).

To engage your students immediately, distribute or display one primary source from an entry and invite them to jot down a single detail they notice and then share. To draw your students deeper into analyzing the primary sources, ask them to record observations, reflections and questions on the Library’s primary source analysis tool. Anne Savage offers tips in the Blog Round-Up: Using the Primary Source Analysis Tool.

Students can also:

  • Compare a secondary source account, such as a textbook explanation, to a primary source account. What can be learned from each? What cannot be learned from each? What questions do students have?
  • Consider how a series of primary sources support or challenge information and understanding on a particular topic. Ask students to refine or revise conclusions based on their study of each subsequent primary source.
  • Use the list of additional resources at the end of each Today in History entry to search for additional primary sources.

Some of our favorite ideas for using these resources came in the comments reacting to Primary Sources Every Day from the Library of Congress. Let us know how you use them!

Five Questions with Digital Archivist Trevor Owens

Tue, 07/15/2014 - 9:00am

The following is a guest post from Trevor Owens, former Special Curator for the Library of Congress Science Literacy Initiative and current Digital Archivist in the Office of Strategic Initiatives. You can find several Teaching with the Library of Congress posts by Trevor Owens here.

Describe what you do at the Library of Congress and the materials you work with.

Trevor Owens (right) talking to Bill Nye at the opening of the Sagan Papers. Photograph by Marjee Owens

I’m a Digital Archivist with NDIIPP, the Library of Congress program focused on building national capacity for ensuring long term access to digital information. However, of more interest to readers here, last year I had the privilege to serve as the Special Curator for the online collection Finding Our Place in the Cosmos: From Galileo to Sagan and Beyond, a collection of 327 items, 110 of them from The Seth Macfarlane Collection of the Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan Archive, and the other 217 items from across the breadth of the Library of Congress collections. This was, unquestionably, the coolest thing I have ever had the chance to work on. In all honesty, it is likely to be the coolest thing I ever get the chance to work on.

Do you have a favorite item or two from the Finding our Place in the Cosmos collection?

The Things that Live on Mars

It is hard to choose, but I love a lot of the representations and visions of what Martians would be like. So. The Trailer for  Flight to Mars from 1951, or H.G.Wells’ 1908 story of  “The Things that Live on Mars” in Cosmopolitan Magazine. For a very long time, humans were obsessed with the idea of Martians, and I love that the collection contains Carl Sagan’s explanation of why in this draft of the voice over for an episode of his television series “Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, Martians! draft script for Cosmos episode 5”.

Share a time when an item from the collections sparked your curiosity.

I realize that you said curiosity, but the feeling I ran into most in working with the Sagan materials is awe. When you lay the papers out in front of you from someone’s life you see the traces of our personality and our humanity in one fell swoop. Sunrise, sunset.

I spent a day or two out of every week working behind the scenes in the Manuscript Division’s prep section. At that point, it was like being in a football field of materials from the Sagan papers as the archivists were working to arrange the collection. In my little work area I was allowed to poke around in the boxes as they had come in. It was amazing to pull out a set of folders of correspondence and literally lay out someone’s life and relationships in front of you. I’ll give one example.

David Grinspoon had been mentored by Carl Sagan. He also happened to be a scholar in residence here at the Library of Congress while I was working with the collection. When I went through David and Carl’s correspondence I found a whole series of letters of recommendation Carl had written for him. One for an undergraduate application to Brown, one recommending him for his doctoral studies at the University of Arizona, and another for his  appointment at the University of Colorado. In each letter, Carl focused on different aspects of David’s work and character. In these letters, from 1976 to 1988, you get a feel for what Sagan thought were the characteristics of a scientist that he appreciated in David. You lay these out in front of you and see someone go from a student to a colleague. I will always remember when I sat down with David and handed him copies of these letters to review. I think I saw him tear up a bit. It’s a bit of a “this is your life” moment to see yourself mature through the eyes of your mentor.

Tell us about a memorable interaction with an educator and the Library of Congress collections?

One of the most rewarding parts of working with the Carl Sagan papers is captured in the picture accompanying this post. In grade school I was inspired by Bill Nye the Science Guy’s television show. For people in my generation, his stories and visual representations of science are really iconic. While working with the Carl Sagan papers I was thrilled to be able to look through some of Nye and Sagan’s correspondence. Nye had taken a class with Sagan, and in much the same way Nye had been an inspiration to explore and communicate science to many people, he had at least in part picked up that passion and approach to the wonder of science from Sagan. So it was a lot of fun to hold and flip through some of their correspondence form when Nye was trying to get The Science Guy show off the ground. In keeping with a lot of Sagan’s feedback on things, there was a mixture of praise and excitement and critical focus on making sure that he got the science right.

Finding Nye’s papers was already a memorable interaction, but it was really hit home when I was able to meet him in person at the event for the opening of the Sagan papers. There I was, presenting items from the Sagan papers to folks at the event when Bill Nye came through. Nye ended up telling those of us presenting materials at the event about how a page we had open in Carl Sagan’s college notebooks clearly had a young Carl Sagan trying to work out a set of equations about time travel. Just meeting someone who had a show that impacted and taught you so much is memorable. Beyond that though, in keeping with the whole experience of working with Carl Sagan’s papers, the encounter hit home just how personal the tradition of science is. How one individual can find the joy and wonder of science and imagination and impart that on someone who then imparts it on others. In that vein, it’s a real testament to the power of Sagan’s legacy that his passion is carried on by science educators across the world who are running with it.

What’s one thing you’d like to tell teachers about the materials that you work with?

Science is not a set of facts; it’s a communal process of imagination, exploration and argumentation grounded in evidence collected from the natural world. To this end, historical texts, images, models, documents and images are an amazing resource for teaching science as a process and way of knowing.

I think this point comes out across each of the previous teachers blog posts I’ve written. Whether it’s about imagining the future, or spaceships, or models of eclipses, or planets that we thought were planets that we no longer think are planets or models of the solar system, each of these explorations underscores how primary sources are invaluable at prompting the kinds of reflections in learners to help them come to see how knowledge is produced and shared thorough science.

Understanding the how of science is essential for participating in a modern democracy and I believe strongly that there is a great role for libraries, archives and museums to play in helping provide resources to support this kind of science literacy education. As such, I’m absolutely thrilled that folks here at the Library of Congress are excited about making our collections useful and used by science educators.

Our Favorite Posts: Bringing History and Dance Together

Tue, 07/08/2014 - 9:00am

Summer is a perfect time to reflect on the school year gone by. This week, Vivian Awumey of the Library of Congress showcases one of her favorite posts from 2013-2014.

Lately, a few of my colleagues and I have been thinking about teaching with fine arts-related primary sources, as we prepare a TPS Journal issue focused on this topic.  This blog gives a wonderful description of how teachers can use dance to teach non-arts subjects.  I love that it features Katherine Dunham, whose approach to cultural anthropology and artistic expression has fascinated me since I was a young girl.

Bringing History and Dance Together: The World of Katherine Dunham March 27, 2014 by

Using dance can bring history to life. Looking at dancers in photographs, films and other images, and reading about dancing and its role in celebrations, commemorations, and other events can help students learn about  issues and events that were considered important in a community, how people celebrated, what mores and values were important, and how people dressed when going to these events. Dance can help students meet Common Core State Standards, including those related to integrating visual materials to material in print and visual texts as well as those related to evaluating multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media.

Katherine Dunham by Phyllis Twachtman, 1956

One person who studied dance and how people used dance in select cultures was Katherine Dunham, a pioneer in what she called dance anthropology. After completing her studies in dance and anthropology at the University of Chicago, Dunham received a fellowship to study dance in the Caribbean. Her studies in Haiti, Jamaica, and the West Indies led to a number of publications, but also changed how Dunham viewed dance and how she choreographed and taught dance. The Library of Congress is extremely fortunate to offer online resources from the Katherine Dunham Collection to help students of dance and of history learn a different way of viewing history as well as a different way of dance.

To help students use dance  to learn about a community’s values and experiences, show the video of the dancers performing the Mazouk. Encourage them to  record their thinking on the Library’s primary source analysis tool  as they watch the dance. Ask them to think about what is happening in this dance and what they might be celebrating. Then play the recording of Dunham talking about the history of the dance. How does this change their perception of the dance? If time allows, show the video again, and ask students to update the analysis tool with additional observations, reflections, and questions.

Mazouk from L’Ag’Ya

In addition, students can watch the Eugenie to compare the Mazouk to a traditional waltz. What are the similarities and differences? Why would dancers from the African American and African Caribbean communities want to dance in the same way as the members of the Anglo community?

Show students the Trinidad Fieldwork recording and then show them the Blind Man’s Buff video. What are the similarities and differences between the two dances? What emotions does each dance evoke?

Encourage students to identify events they attend that include dancing. What role does dance play in the event? How would the event be changed without dancing?

How else can you use dance to study history? Tell us in the comments.